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A U.S. Postage Stamp commemorating Ochs.
Adolph Simon Ochs (b. March 12, 1858–April 8, 1935) was an American newspaper publisher and former owner of The New York Times and The Chattanooga Times (now the Chattanooga Times Free Press).
Ochs was born to German-Jewish immigrants, Julius and Bertha Levy Ochs, in Cincinnati, Ohio. The family moved south to Knoxville, Tennessee, due to his mother's sympathies during the Civil War. Julius sided with the Union during the war, but it didn't separate the household. Ochs began his newspaper career there at age 11, leaving grammar school to become an apprentice typesetter, known in that era as a "printer's devil". He worked at the Knoxville Chronicle under Captain William Rule, the editor who became his mentor. His siblings also worked at the newspaper to supplement the income of their father, a lay rabbi for Knoxville's small Jewish community. The Knoxville Chronicle was the only Republican, pro-Reconstruction, newspaper in the city, but Ochs counted Father Ryan, the Poet-Priest of the Confederacy, among his customers.
Chattanooga Times and New York Times
At the age of 19, he borrowed $250 to purchase a controlling interest in The Chattanooga Times, becoming its publisher. In 1896, at the age of 38, he again borrowed money to purchase The New York Times, a money-losing newspaper that had a wide range of competitors in New York City. In 1904, he hired Carr Van Anda as his managing editor. Their focus on objective news reporting, in a time when newspapers were openly and highly partisan, and a well-timed price decrease (from 3 cents per issue to 1 cent) led to its rescue from near oblivion. The paper's readership increased from 9,000 at the time of his purchase to 780,000 by the 1920s.
In 1904, Ochs moved the New York Times to a newly-built building on Longacre Square in Manhattan, which the City of New York then renamed as Times Square. On New Year's Eve 1904, he had pyrotechnists illuminate his new building at One Times Square with a fireworks show from street level.
Family and religious activities
In 1884, Ochs married Effie Wise, the daughter of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise of Cincinnati, who was the leading exponent of Reform Judaism in America and the founder of Hebrew Union College.
In 1928 Ochs built the Mizpah Congregation Temple in Chattanooga in memory of his parents, Julius and Bertha Ochs. The Georgian colonial building was designated as a Tennessee Historical Preservation Site in 1979.
Ochs was engaged in crusading against anti-Semitism. He was active in the early years of the Anti-Defamation League, serving as an executive board member, and using his influence as publisher of the New York Times to convince other newspapers nationwide to cease the unjustified caricaturing and lampooning of Jews in the American press.
Death and legacy
Ochs died April 8, 1935 during a visit to Chattanooga.
His only daughter, Iphigene Bertha Ochs, married Arthur Hays Sulzberger, who became publisher of the Times after Adolph died. Her son-in-law Orvil Dryfoos was publisher from 1961–63, followed by her son Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger. Her daughter, Ruth Holmberg, became publisher of The Chattanooga Times. Ruth Holmberg's son is Arthur Golden, author of Memoir of a Geisha. Ochs' great-grandson Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. has been publisher of The New York Times since 1992.
One of his nephews, Julius Ochs Adler, worked at the New York Times for more than 40 years, becoming general manager in 1935, after Ochs died. Another nephew, John Bertram Oakes, the son of his brother George Washington Ochs Oakes, became editorial page editor of the Times' editorial page in 1961, which he edited until 1976.
Mr. Ochs was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1982.
Arthur Hays Sulzberger
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Arthur Hays Sulzberger (12 September 1891 – 11 December 1968) was the publisher of The New York Times from 1935 to 1961. During that time, daily circulation rose from 465,000 to 713,000 and Sunday circulation from 745,000 to 1.4 million; the staff more than doubled, reaching 5,200; advertising linage grew from 19 million to 62 million column inches per year; and gross income increased almost sevenfold, reaching 117 million dollars
Sulzberger was the son of Cyrus L. Sulzberger, a cotton-goods merchant, and Rachel Peixotto Hays, descendant of old and noteworthy Sephardic families. Her great-grandfather, Benjamin Seixas, brother of the famous rabbi and American revolutionary Gershom Mendes Seixas of Congregation Shearith Israel, was one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange. Her grandfather, Dr D.L.M. Peixotto, was a prominent physician and director of Columbia University's Medical College.
Sulzberger graduated from the Horace Mann School in 1909 and Columbia College in 1913, and married Iphigene Bertha Ochs in 1917. In 1918 he began working at the Times, and became publisher when his father-in-law, Adolph Ochs, the previous Times publisher, died in 1935. In 1929, he founded Columbia's original Jewish Advisory Board and served on the board of what became Columbia-Barnard Hillel for many years. He served as a University trustee from 1944 to 1959 and is honored with a floor at the journalism school. He also served as a trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation from 1939 to 1957. In 1954, Sulzberger received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York."
In 1956, Sulzberger received the Elijah Parish Lovejoy Award as well as an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Colby College.
He was succeeded as publisher first by a son-in-law, Orvil E. Dryfoos, in 1961, and then two years later by his son, Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger.
Sulzberger broadened the Times’s use of background reporting, pictures, and feature articles, and expanded its sections. He supervised the development of facsimile transmission for photographs and built the Times radio station, WQXR, into a leading vehicle for news and music. Under Sulzberger the Times began to publish editions in Paris and Los Angeles with remote-control typesetting machines.
He once stated, "I believe in an open mind, but not so open that your brains fall out." Sulzberger is also credited with the quote: "We journalists tell the public which way the cat is jumping. The public will take care of the cat."
Sulzberger, a practicing Jew, has been accused by Laurel Leff of deliberately burying accounts of Nazi atrocities against Jews in the back pages of the Times. She alleges that Sulzberger went out of his way to play down the special victimhood of Jews and withheld support for specific rescue programs for European Jews.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orvil Eugene Dryfoos (November 8, 1912 – May 25, 1963) was the publisher of The New York Times from 1961 to his death in 1963. Dryfoos entered The Times family via his marriage to Marian Sulzberger, daughter of then-publisher Arthur Hays Sulzberger.
1 Early life
2 The New York Times
3 Strike and death
Dryfoos was born to Jack A. Dryfoos, a wealthy hosiery manufacturer who was also the treasurer of a paper novelty manufacturing company. He attended the Horace Mann School in New York City and Dartmouth College. He majored in sociology and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1934.
Upon graduation he began work as a runner on Wall Street at the firm Asiel & Co. In 1937 he moved to the firm Sydney Lewinson & Co. as a partner and purchased a seat on the New York Stock Exchange. Dryfoos belonged to Congregation Emanu-El of New York. Dryfoos was prevented from serving in World War II due to a diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease. He worked instead for the New York Red Cross Chapter's blood donor committee through the war.
The New York Times
On July 8, 1941 he married Marian Sulzberger, daughter of publisher Arthur Hays Sulzberger. Sulzberger had himself married into the family. He was the husband of Adolph Ochs's only child, ... "I was sensible enough to marry the boss's daughter," Sulzberger told Dryfoos, "and you were too."
In 1942, Dryfoos left Wall Street to be groomed to lead The New York Times and he became a reporter on the local staff. Though he worked numerous assignments, he never earned a byline during his year on the writing staff. The next year he became assistant to the publisher. He had three children: Jacqueline Hays, (born May 8, 1943), Robert Ochs (November 4, 1944) and Susan Warms (November 5, 1946).
Membership in The Times family carried formidable social cachet. Dryfoos became a trustee of his alma mater Dartmouth, a lay trustee of Fordham University, and trustee and executive committee member of the Rockefeller Foundation, a director of the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau, a director of the Fifth Avenue Association, a director of the 1964 New York World's Fair, and president of the company charity, The New York Times Foundation. He was awarded an honorary Master of Arts in 1957 from Dartmouth and an honorary Doctor of Laws in 1962 from Oberlin College.
Sulzberger liked Dryfoos, thus his ascent became inevitable. In 1954 Dryfoos became a vice-president and director of the company. In 1957 he became Times president and after Sulzberger suffered a stroke in 1958, Dryfoos became responsible for most of the paper's day-to-day operations. He officially becoming publisher on April 25, 1961, when Sulzberger stepped down.
Dryfoos immediately appointed the highly-regarded journalist John Bertram Oakes to the post of editorial page editor. Another of Dryfoos's first orders of business, was launching the Western Edition of The New York Times, which was announced on October 31, 1961. But the defining struggle of Dryfoos's tenure at The Times was a lengthy newspaper strike.
Strike and death
In late 1962, a massive newspaper strike brought the publishing industry of New York to its knees. The staff of The Times dropped from 5,000 working personnel to only 900. The stress of negotiations and continuing to produce as much of a paper as possible adversely affected Dryfoos's health, as he worked to resolve the strike. The strike lasted for 114 days and at the time was identified as the costliest in Times history. On March 31, 1963 the strikers returned to work. Dryfoos maintained cordial relations with strikers throughout the stoppage and greeted the staff with a letter stating, "It's good to see you back at work!"
Dryfoos went to Puerto Rico to recover, but while there he checked into the hospital. He returned to New York and immediately went to Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center. He died there on May 26, 1963 from heart failure at the age of 50.
Dryfoos's funeral at Congregation Emanu-El of New York was attended by many New York City luminaries, including New York City mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr., Columbia University president Grayson L. Kirk and long-time New York District Attorney Robert M. Morgenthau.. Many members of the Rockefeller family, including New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, Lincoln Center chairman John D. Rockefeller III, and Chase Manhattan Bank president David Rockefeller. Many of his rival publishers attended: Hearst Newspapers editor in chief William Randolph Hearst, Jr., Newhouse publisher Samuel Irving Newhouse, Sr., New York Post publisher Dorothy Schiff, CBS president Frank Stanton, and Time Magazine chairman Andrew Heiskell (in 1965, Heiskell married Dryfoos's widow, Marian).
James Reston, the Washington correspondent and future executive editor of The New York Times, who was also a close friend of Dryfoos gave the eulogy. Reston said that Dryfoos "wore his life away" during the strike and "when the strike was over he finally slipped away to the hospital and never came back."
He was succeeded as publisher by Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger, the son of Arthur Hays Sulzberger, and younger brother of Marian Sulzberger.
Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger (b. February 5, 1926 New York City) to a prominent media and publishing family, is himself an American publisher and businessman. He succeeded his father, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, and maternal grandfather as publisher and chairman of the New York Times in 1963, passing the positions to his son Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. in 1992.
Sulzberger graduated from the Loomis Institute and then enlisted into the United States Marine Corps during World War II serving from 1944 to 1946, in the Pacific Theater. He earned a B.A. degree in English and History in 1951 at Columbia University. Upon graduation, he was recalled to active duty (he was in the Marine Corps Reserve) because of the Korean War. Following completion of officer training, he saw duty in Korea and then in Washington, D.C., before being inactivated.
He became publisher of The Times in 1963, after the death of his brother-in-law, Orvil Dryfoos. In the 1960s Sulzberger built a large news-gathering staff at The Times, and was publisher when the newspaper won a Pulitzer Prize in 1972 for publishing The Pentagon Papers.
He is the son of Arthur Hays Sulzberger, a previous publisher of The New York Times. His son Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. succeeded him as the newspaper's publisher in 1992. Sulzberger remained chairman of The New York Times Company until October 1997.
In 2005, the Newspaper Association of America (NAA) honored Sulzberger with the Katharine Graham Lifetime Achievement Award.
The Ochs-Sulzberger family, one of the United States' newspaper dynasties, has owned the Times since 1896. After the publisher went public in the 1960s, the family continued to exert control through its ownership of the vast majority of Class B voting shares. Class A shareholders cannot vote on many important matters relating to the company, while Class B shareholders can vote on all matters. Dual-class structures caught on in the mid-20th century as families such as the Grahams of the Washington Post Company sought to gain access to public capital without losing control. Dow Jones & Co., publisher of The Wall Street Journal, had a similar structure and was controlled by the Bancroft family; the company was later bought by the News Corporation in 2007
Turner Catledge, the top editor at the New York Times for almost two decades, wanted to hide the ownership influence.Sulzberger routinely wrote memos to his editor, each containing suggestions, instructions, complaints, and orders. When Catledge would receive these memos he would erase the publisher’s identity and give them to the people his subordinates. Catledge thought that if he removed the publisher’s name from the memos it would protect reporters from feeling pressured by the owner.
The Ochs-Sulzberger family trust controls roughly 88 percent of the company's class B shares. Any alteration to the dual-class structure must be ratified by six of eight directors who sit on the board of the Ochs-Sulzberger family trust. The Trust board members are Daniel H. Cohen, James M. Cohen, Lynn G. Dolnick, Susan W. Dryfoos, Michael Golden, Eric M. A. Lax, Arthur O. Sulzberger, Jr. and Cathy J. Sulzberger.
This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Please help improve this article by introducing appropriate citations of additional sources. (August 2008)
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, Jr. (born 22 September 1951) became the publisher of The New York Times in 1992 and chairman of the board of its owner, The New York Times Company, in 1997, succeeding his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger.
Sulzberger was born in Mount Kisco, New York, the son of Barbara Winslow (née Grant) and the previous Times publisher Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, and the grandson of another Times publisher, Arthur Hays Sulzberger. He is married to artist and journalist Gail Gregg. They recently announced plans to end their marriage.
Sulzberger earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Tufts University in 1974. He was a reporter with The Raleigh Times from 1974 to 1976, and a London correspondent for The Associated Press from 1976 to 1978. He joined The New York Times in 1978 as a correspondent in its Washington bureau. He moved to New York as a metro reporter in 1981 and was appointed assistant metro editor later that year. He is also a 1985 graduate of the Harvard Business School's Program for Management Development.
From 1983 to 1987, he worked in a variety of business departments, including production and corporate planning. In January 1987, he was named assistant publisher and, a year later, deputy publisher, overseeing the news and business departments. In both capacities, he was involved in planning The Times's automated color printing and distribution facilities in Edison, New Jersey, and at College Point in Queens, New York, as well as the creation of the six-section color newspaper.
Sulzberger played a central role in the development of the Times Square Business Improvement District, officially launched in January 1992, serving as the first chairman of that civic organization. He also helped found and serves as chairman of New York City Outward Bound.
Sulzberger has a son, Arthur Gregg Sulzberger, and a daughter, Annie Sulzberger, who both attended Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. Arthur Gregg Sulzberger began writing for The New York Times in February 2009.
Home > Company > Board of Directors > Michael Golden
The New York Times Company
President and Chief Operating Officer
The New York Times Regional Media Group
Mr. Golden was appointed vice chairman of The New York Times Company in October 1997. He was also elected to the Company’s Board of Directors in 1997. In March 2009, Mr. Golden added to his portfolio the responsibilities of president and chief operating officer for The New York Times Regional Media Group.
Mr. Golden served as publisher of the International Herald Tribune from November 2003 to January 2008. From 1997 to 2003, Mr. Golden served as chief administrative officer for the Company, and before his appointment as publisher of the Tribune, Mr. Golden served on the newspaper’s Board of Directors from 1997 to 2002.
Previously, Mr. Golden served as the Company’s vice president for operations development from January 1996 to 1997. He was executive vice president and publisher at the Company’s Tennis magazine from October 1994 to January 1996. Before that, he served as executive vice president and general manager of the Company’s Women’s Publishing Division from September 1991 to October 1994. The Times Company sold its Women’s Publishing Division in 1994.
Mr. Golden earned a Bachelor of Arts degree with honors in 1971 and a master’s degree in education in 1974 from Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Penn. He earned a master’s degree in journalism from the University of Missouri in Columbia in 1977 and an M.B.A. in 1984 from Emory University in Atlanta, Ga., where he achieved membership to the national honorary business fraternity.
Board of Directors
Daniel H. Cohen was elected to the Board of Directors of The New York Times Company in 2007.
Mr. Cohen serves as director of educational services for ReServe, Inc., Retired Professionals Serving the Nonprofit Community. Before joining ReServe, Inc., Mr. Cohen served as president of DeepSee, LLC, an oceanic exploration and submarine leasing company, from 2007 to 2009. Prior to that, he founded Dan Cohen & Sons, LLC, a television production company, in 1999 and served as its president until 2006.
Mr. Cohen was senior vice president, advertising for The New York Times from 1996 to 1999. During his 16 years with The Times, he was also vice president, advertising from 1995 to 1996, group director of promotion from 1993 to 1995, and managing director of sales from 1992 to 1993, and held various positions, including circulation sales development manager, Northeast circulation manager and corporate planning analyst from 1983 to 1992.
Prior to joining The Times, Mr. Cohen was vice president, business affairs at Fort Worth Productions from 1981 to 1983, and a broadcast journalist and director at WESH-TV from 1976 to 1980. He was a management trainee at Multimedia Corp. from 1974 to 1976.
Committee Membership: Finance