Friday, July 17, 2009

Ochenta años de Adios a las Armas by Ernest Hemingway ( Farewell to Arms "



A Farewell to Arms

First edition cover
Author Ernest Hemingway
Country American
Language English
Genre(s) War
Semi-autobiographical novel
Publisher Scribner's Magazine
Publication date May–October, 1929
Media type print (serialization)
Pages 336 pp (Scribner reprint ed)
ISBN ISBN 978-0-684-80146-9 (Scribner reprint ed)
A Farewell to Arms is a semi-autobiographical novel written by Ernest Hemingway, first published in 1929. Much of the novel was written at the home of Hemingway's in-laws in Piggott, Arkansas.[1] The novel is told through the point of view of Lieutenant Frederic Henry, an American serving as an ambulance driver in the Italian army during World War I. The title is taken from a poem by 16th century English dramatist George Peele.[2]
Contents [hide]
1 Plot summary
2 Characters
3 Censorship
4 Adaptations
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
[edit]Plot summary

The novel is divided into five books. In the first book, Henry meets and attempts to seduce Catherine Barkley and their relationship begins. While on the Italian front, Henry is wounded in the knee by a mortar shell and sent to a hospital in Milan. The second book shows the growth of Henry and Catherine's relationship as they spend time together in Milan over the summer. Henry falls in love with Catherine and by the time he is healed, Catherine is three months pregnant. In the third book, Henry returns to his unit, but not long after, the Austro-Germans break through the Italian lines and the Italians retreat. Henry kills an engineering sergeant for insubordination. After falling behind and catching up again, Henry is taken to a place by the "battle police" where officers are being interrogated and executed for the "treachery" that supposedly led to the Italian defeat. However, after hearing the execution of a Lt.Colonel, Henry escapes by jumping into a river. In the fourth book, Catherine and Henry reunite and flee to Switzerland in a rowing boat. In the final book, Henry and Catherine live a quiet life in the mountains until she goes into labour. After a long and painful labour, their son is stillborn. Catherine begins to haemorrhage and soon dies, leaving Henry to return to their hotel in the rain.
[edit]Characters

This section requires expansion.
Frederic Henry, often simply called "Tenente" ("Lieutenant"), is the narrator of the story. Henry is a volunteer ambulance driver from the United States. In Henry, we see the beginnings of what comes to be called Hemingway's "Code Hero": Henry is stoic under duress or pain; he modestly deflects praise for his contributions to the war; he is unflappable under fire; he does his work. He is a "man's man," in that his thoughts revolve on women ("girls") and drink. He participates in and seems to enjoy the banal, everyday conversation between the soldiers. He is attracted to the simple goodness of the priest, who, like Henry (who is not religious), sticks to his beliefs despite the war's constant presence.
Catherine Barkley is an English V.A.D (which is similar to a nurse). She volunteered in the war at the same time her fiancee of eight years joined the army. He was killed in the Battle of Somme. She is English, professional and deeply feeling. Her sexual desires and her simple desire for companionship are sometimes at odds with her needs to tend to the ill. Like the code hero, she handles conflicting needs with grace, giving to both, but shorting none. Feminist thinkers will see in Catherine, Hemingway's perfect woman: wise and cynical in many ways, her wisdom cannot contain her desire. As Henry gives his health and youth to the war effort, Catherine's chief heroism is to accept the pain and death of childbirth stoically.
Rinaldi is a physician through whom Hemingway draws his idea of an Italian male. Sketched somewhat jingoistically, Rinaldi is unfailingly exuberant, ignoring small details that would stop his large and giving gestures. He loves women and drinking, bearing a bottle of the latter and tales of the former to his friend Henry as Henry recovers from his wounds. He enjoys performing surgery, seeing it as an enjoyable challenge; he greets his friend Frederic Henry with a formal European-style kiss. He usually refers to Henry as "baby". Rinaldi is a form of the code hero as well. He allows Hemingway to explore another, non-Anglo-American, way of being male, of facing even a difficult world, an injured Italy, with joie de vivre, ignoring all danger, giving himself.
[edit]Censorship

As printed by Scribner's, a handful of obscenities (the words "shit", "fuck" and "cocksucker", to be precise) were excised from the printed text and replaced with dashes ("----") [3]. There are at least two extant copies of the first edition in which Hemingway re-inserted the censored text by hand, so as to provide a corrected text. One of these copies was presented to Maurice Coindreau; the other, to James Joyce [4]. Hemingway's corrected text has not been incorporated into any published edition of the novel.
[edit]Adaptations

The novel was adapted for the stage by Laurence Stallings in 1930.
The 1932 screen adaptation was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture. The screenplay was written by Oliver H.P. Garrett and Benjamin Glazer. It was directed by Frank Borzage and features the music of Richard Wagner. The movie stars Helen Hayes, Gary Cooper and Adolphe Menjou [5].
A 1957 remake starring Rock Hudson, Jennifer Jones and Vittorio De Sica was directed by Charles Vidor and John Huston. De Sica was nominated for Best Supporting Actor for his performance [6].
The BBC broadcast an abridged adaptation - written by Giles Cooper, directed by Rex Tucker and starring Vanessa Redgrave and George Hamilton - on February 15, 1966 [7].
[edit]

No comments: